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It is sometimes called a gene clock or an evolutionary clock.The notion of the existence of a so-called "molecular clock" was first attributed to Émile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling who, in 1962, noticed that the number of amino acid differences in hemoglobin between different lineages changes roughly linearly with time, as estimated from fossil evidence.The principle is similar to the program Rate Evolver (Ho .2005), but it allows more flexibility and it can be easily combined with popular programs to simulate phylogenetic trees.Together with Dr Nathan Lo, I run the “Molecular Ecology, Evolution, and Phylogenetics” research group. I run the Evolution Journal Club, which meets on a fortnightly basis, and also run an annual workshop on phylogenetics.

This tutorial is written for BEAST v2.4.7 (Bouckaert et al., 2014).

The benchmarks for determining the mutation rate are often fossil or archaeological dates.

The molecular clock was first tested in 1962 on the haemoglobin protein variants of various animals, and is commonly used in molecular evolution to estimate times of speciation or radiation.

The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.

The biomolecular data used for such calculations are usually nucleotide sequences for DNA or amino acid sequences for proteins.

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